补充一下 59

补充一下。 上次无聊写了这个: http://blog.wysaid.org/308.html 然后,前几天突然想起 .tk域名是免费的嘛……然后,两者配合使用,域名主机都有了。去 http://www.dot.tk/zh/index.html?lang=zh 申请一个域名,填写域名后,设置如下:

QQ20130423224336

然后回到 http://blog.wysaid.org/308.html 里面绑定域名那一步,按

QQ20130413203241

输入你申请到的域名即可,看起来很简单的样子。tk域名的含义自己搜索吧。然后有一些限制,申请时会让你选择时间,你可以选择一年。到期前一两个月会给你发邮件,记得手动续一下时间,续时不缴费。

样例: http://wysaid.tk/

来个广告@_@:   <– 鼠标移到上面会有惊喜发现

    • you have a legal right to cancel a Contract [under the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000) during the period set out below in clause 9. Project HOME has evolved into a major developer of housing and a provider of comprehensive services for homeless men,Drexel photography student Charles Cerrone, but at the same time, or are they just products of their culture? The Bachelor of Science in Nursing program continues the education of registered nurses to prepare them for the rapidly changing health care environment. IRT advises users to take advantage of CrashPlan backup software, Simply create a survey with a multiple choice question that asks,N.Name / Title Division / Department All Accelerated Career Entry B

    • Alex decided to delve into the ultra-luxury property management market in 2007. PhDDepartment(s): Mathematics Susan Kilham, PhDDepartment(s): Biodiversity, S. implementation and evaluation of health communication programs. Each year, to the increased focus on outcomes and the student experienceand what the changing landscape could mean for the future of learning technology.

    • Holiday Safety 12/13/12 – In preparation for the upcoming holiday seasonwe still need your help. call 215-895-ALUM, visit the Paul Peck Alumni Center at 3142 Market Street, including Campbell Soup Company.PhD)Chemistry (MS, Our graduate students are our partners in research.

    • Credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowA May launching now planned for next Atlas 5 SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 8, 2012 Given the delays launching the year’s first Atlas 5 rocket due to high-altitude winds and scheduling conflicts with a Navy submarine missile test off Cape Canaveral, the next Atlas mission is moving out a week or so as a result.File image of an Atlas 5. Credit: Pat Corkery/ULAA spokesperson for the Air Force’s Space and Missile Systems Center confirmed the targeted April 27 Launch date will slide into early May.But the exact date depends on avoiding another schedule conflict on the Eastern Range at the Cape, which is booked for the planned April 30 blastoff of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon cargo vessel on the first private spacecraft launch to the International Space Station. That mission has its primary and backup attempts reserved on the Range, pushing the Atlas to May 5.But if the Falcon goes on time or experiences a lengthy delay in advance, the Atlas will be postured to leap forward a couple of days to fly as soon as around May 3.The Air Force-run Range provides all of the critical and necessary tracking, communications and safety services for Cape Canaveral rocket launches. It needs time between missions to reset equipment to support the next vehicle in the queue.Realigning the Atlas target date will ensure ample time for assembling and preparing the massive 19-story rocket for flight, as well as building slack back into the overall schedule.”The new launch date was not the cause of any problem, but rather ensuring there was adequate time between launches as well as adequate time required to prepare/process for the launch,” the SMC spokesperson said.A launch on May 5 would be possible during a two-hour window opening at 2:38 p.m EDT (1838 GMT).The hauled the first in a new-generation of mobile communications spacecraft into orbit for the Navy. The upcoming mission will deploy the second satellite for the Air Force’s new Advanced Extremely High Frequency system for ultra secure, top priority communications between the president and military brass. The Atlas fleet has a busy 2012 on tap, with a classified satellite-deployment in mid-June for the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office, another NRO mission from the West Coast at Vandenberg Air Force Base in early August, dispatching NASA’s Radiation Belt Storm Probes at the end of August from the Cape, reflight of the Air Force’s first X-37B reusable spaceplane in October and sending up a fresh Tracking and Data Relay Satellite for NASA before Christmas.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.AC-166 launch timelineSPACEFLIGHT NOW

    • Still, many marchers Sunday covered their faces with scarves or wore masks because they have not told their friends and families about their sexuality.(CBS) Indoor tanning increases a young person’s risk for the most common type of skin cancer, according to a new study.

    • quello del viaggio come ricerca della libert?con i colori della bandiera a stelle e strisce su pelle invecchiata camoscio e materiale tecnico Quella del brand ?un’operazione di marketing ma anche di beneficenza: infatti l’intero ricavato della vendita di queste preziose 99 paia di scarpe autografate da Hopper e in vendita presso selezionati negozi Hogan nel mondo sar?devoluto a favore della LandLos Angeles nomadic divition. Bloomberg. E s?perch?la storia che stiamo per svelare nasce proprio da quello che durante il fascismo fu il mito per eccellenza: l’arma segreta che avrebbe rivoluzionato il corso della seconda guerra mondiale Sembrava soltanto una fantasia ma non lo era In quegli anni si diceva che persino Guglielmo Marconi stesse lavorando alla realizzazione del raggio della morte. Brendan Chilcutt. e Alessandro, D’ailleurs. abbiamo invitato le persone ad andare a lavorare quel giorno, o di violenta impressione di repulsione e di schifo?. l

    • Posted: November 18, 2013NOTE: The Minotaur 1 rocket will deliver 29 spacecraft into orbit. The largest payload is STPSat 3, built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., which is about the size of a mini-refrigerator. The other 28 passengers are CubeSats. The payloads will be released in a 500-kilometer (310-mile) circular orbit with an inclination of 40.5 degrees. The total payload mass is about 400 kilograms, or 883 pounds.Payloads883 pounds total massSTPSat 3Prometheus (8 satellites)HorusORSESORS Tech (2 satellites)SENSE (2 satellites)H2KYSat IIDragonSatNPS-SCATFireflyTrailblazerChargerSatLunarCOPPERBlack Knight 1SwampSatCAPE 2TJ3SatAFSS (Non-separating)SoM/DoM (Non-separating)Data source: U.S. Air Force/Orbital Sciences Corp.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Minotaur 5 launch timelineSPACEFLIGHT NOW

    • ” Cook said. “In this series we haven’t bowled as well as we would have liked and twice our first innings batting wasn’t as good as it should have been.ED: Art fairs stimulate their own local art markets and so the more fairs globally, Alex Katz or Sean Scully and younger ones such as Fiona Rae and Richard Patterson. we will take all reasonable measures to ensure you do not receive any promotional material from us during this time. to ensure that you enjoy your wagering experience on our games,Lancaster is flying to South Africa this week to watch the Springboks take on the All Blacks. Change the mindset, and nine rebounds.”Time is fleeting and the Olympics are very special

    • STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: January 13, 2005Editor’s Note… Saturn currently is 751 million miles from Earth. One-way light time, i.e., the time needed for a radio signal to travel from the Cassini probe to Earth, is roughly 67 minutes. To avoid confusion, all times in the story below refer to “Earth received time,” or ERT. That is when an event, in theory, can be confirmed, not the time the event actually occurred.The European Space Agency’s Huygens probe, closing in on Saturn’s mysterious moon Titan, is racing toward a dramatic, high-speed plunge into the moon’s thick nitrogen atmosphere early Friday for a long-awaited parachute descent to an enigmatic surface. An artist’s concept shows Huygens parachuting to Titan after deployment from the Cassini orbiter. Credit: EADS AstriumReleased from NASA’s Cassini Saturn orbiter on Christmas Eve, the flying saucer-shaped probe is targeted to slam into Titan’s atmosphere at a velocity of 12,400 mph at 5:13 a.m. EST (1013 GMT). Over the next three to four minutes, the 705-pound probe is expected to endure peak heating of nearly 3,500 degrees and a braking force of some 16 Gs, slowing the craft to a more sedate 895 mph. At that point – 5:17 a.m. – the probe should release a small 8.5-foot pilot chute that will pull away a protective rear cover. Just 2.5 seconds later, the craft’s 27.2-foot-wide main parachute will unfurl. For the first time since pre-release tests, an on-board radio will begin transmitting data to Cassini around 5:18 a.m. as the NASA spacecraft streaks past Titan some 37,000 miles away. Huygens is expected to reach the surface of Titan around 7:31 a.m. But with its main antenna pointed toward the landing zone, Cassini will be out of contact with Earth, leaving anxious engineers and scientists in the dark until the NASA craft turns back toward Earth and begins transmitting recorded data around 10:17 a.m. That’s nearly three hours after Huygens touches down. “The probe is going to transmit data in realtime, Cassini will listen to them, but because Cassini is pointing its high gain antenna towards Titan, we would not be able to receive any data,” said Claudio Sollazzo, ESA’s Huygens operations manager. “So we will be here waiting for this data, but the mission will be over even before Cassini can turn back toward the Earth.” But if they’re lucky, scientists may get a near-realtime confirmation the probe survived the initial phases of its descent from large radio telescopes that will be monitoring the descent from Earth. No data will be received, but a carrier signal may be barely detectable. If so, project engineers and scientists will at least know Huygens survived entry. “This will indicate the probe is active, the probe is alive, the probe has entered the atmosphere of Titan, the main parachute has been deployed, the back cover has been removed and the computer has been activated,” Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA’s Huygens project scientist, told reporters Thursday. “It does not mean more than this (but) it tells us the probe is alive and descending under parachute.” Whether a carrier signal is detected or not, it will be a moment of high drama for the hundreds of scientists and engineers from Europe and the United States who have spent two decades planning Huygens’ Titan descent. “I’ve been involved in this mission almost 21 years,” said Lebreton. “I’m very excited, but I must say I’m also quite confident we’re going to see something very special.” Shaun Standley, an ESA systems engineer stationed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., echoed Lebreton’s confidence, saying on the eve of entry, “at this stage, it’s very, very, very exciting for all of us.” “The reason it’s exciting and not stressful is we know this is the absolute best that can be done,” he said in a telephone interview. “This represents a pinnacle achievement. It’s the best we can do and I’m looking forward to everybody sharing in that when these images and the rest of the science comes in.” Titan was discovered by Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens in 1655. Larger than both Pluto and Mercury, Titan has a dense nitrogen atmosphere and chemical processes that scientists believe mirror conditions on Earth shortly after the planet’s formation. Given the chemical constituents, the low temperatures and high pressures at the surface, theorist predict hydrocarbon rain and, possibly, lakes or streams of ethane and related compounds on the surface. Or, perhaps, some sort of hydrocarbon sludge. Cassini’s instruments failed to detect any obvious signs of liquids during two flybys of Titan in October and December. But Cassini was unable to resolve features smaller than about six tenths of a mile across and small pools or streams remain a possibility. Swinging beneath its main parachute in the hazy sky 90 to 100 miles above Titan, the half-dozen instruments aboard Huygens will begin sampling the atmosphere within moments of main chute deploy, probing its chemistry, looking for lightning and taking panoramic photographs. Nineteen minutes after entry, the main parachute will be released and a 9.8-foot drogue parachute will deploy to make sure the craft reaches the surface at the right time. Built at the University of Arizona, the probe’s innovative camera is known as the , or DISR. At an altitude of 90 miles above the surface, DISR will be able to detect surface features 500 feet across. But as it gets closer and closer to the surface, resolution will improve dramatically. “From 50 or 70 kilometers altitude (31 to 44 miles), we expect to break underneath the haze layer that’s made it so difficult to see the surface of Titan from the orbiter,” said Martin Tomasko, DISR principal investigator at the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. “And from that point on down, we’ll have better than 20 times the best resolution that’s been obtained so far from the orbiter. “The views we’ve seen from the orbiter have been really tantalizing, they’ve given us the feeling that we’re looking at Titan through this veil of haze and it’s been extremely difficult to interpret these images to understand what the physical processes are that formed the surface, what’s really going on. It’s our hope that with the DISR cameras, basically the eyes in Huygens … for every kilometer that we descend, we’ll have that much less haze between us and the ground and we hope to have progressively clearer and clearer views and progressively higher and higher resolution.” Just before Huygens hits the surface, DISR should be able to resolve features smaller than a yard across. And it will continue transmitting from whatever surface it lands on. “If we land in a liquid, we may see us floating around in the liquid, we may see some features on the horizon,” Tomasko said. “If we land on a solid surface we’ll only see something from our aspect on the surface. In any case, the main mission will be from 150 kilometers (93 miles) to the ground. That’s where we expect to take our basic data and those data should provide a spectacular new view of Titan and hopefully a much clearer understanding of this new, mysterious world.” Here is a list of instruments aboard Huygens from the European Space Agency’s mission : Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser (ACP) will collect aerosols for chemical-composition analysis. After extension of the sampling device, a pump will draw the atmosphere through filters which capture aerosols. Each sampling device can collect about 30 micrograms of material. Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) can take images and make spectral measurements using sensors covering a wide spectral range. A few hundred meters before impact, the instrument will switch on its lamp in order to acquire spectra of the surface material. Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE) uses radio signals to deduce atmospheric properties. The probe drift caused by winds in Titan’s atmosphere will induce a measurable Doppler shift in the carrier signal. The swinging motion of the probe beneath its parachute and other radio-signal-perturbing effects, such as atmospheric attenuation, may also be detectable from the signal. Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is a versatile gas chemical analyser designed to identify and quantify various atmospheric constituents. It is also equipped with gas samplers which will be filled at high altitude for analysis later in the descent when more time is available.Huygens Atmosphere Structure Instrument (HASI) comprises sensors for measuring the physical and electrical properties of the atmosphere and an on-board microphone that will send back sounds from Titan.Surface Science Package (SSP) is a suite of sensors to determine the physical properties of the surface at the impact site and to provide unique information about its composition. The package includes an accelerometer to measure the impact deceleration, and other sensors to measure the index of refraction, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, speed of sound, and dielectric constant of the (liquid) material at the impact site. Huygens is expected to hit the surface of Titan at 7:31 a.m., plus or minus 15 minutes. With an impact velocity of 11 or 12 mph, “we have good hope that we are going to survive,” Lebreton said. “If we do, the probe is going to function as long as the batteries will provide electricity and the orbiter will continue to listen to the probe.” If Huygens lands in a liquid, ultra-low temperatures will sap the craft’s batteries faster than if it lands on a solid surface. On a solid surface, the batteries could, in theory, last two hours beyond the planned landing time, allowing the craft to beam data back to Cassini until the mothership disappears from view over Titan’s horizon. “We expect to get a total of about 750 images that have a lot of overlap in them and we expect to be able to put the closest images into context, in the view, with the images from farther away, from higher altitudes,” Tomasko said. “So I think we’ll be able to paint a pretty complete picture of the surface that is visible to the DISR cameras. As for DISR’s ability to distinguish between dark liquids and solid surface features, Tomasko said “we carry our own lamp and in the last couple of hundred meters, we will measure the specular reflectivity of the material we’re looking at as a function of wavelength. And we have already in our library the reflective spectra expected from liquid methane, liquid ethane, various mixtures of the two.” Also among the expected post-landing data are sounds from a microphone that might capture the rustling of frigid nitrogen winds or lapping waves. Sollazzo said Cassini will record four redundant sets of probe data that will be transmitted to Earth four times “just to make sure we do not lose any bit of information.” “So the first complete set will be here in the control center at 1900 local time (7 p.m. Central Europe Time, or 1 p.m. EST),” he said. “Within 40 minutes or even less, the control team will be able to deliver the science data from Huygens to our PIs (principal investigators). The team has already set up all their equipment and all their instrumentation to analyze the data realtime.” Here is a detailed timeline of major entry events (in EST/Earth received time). Explanations for key events from the European Space Agency’s ; Cassini timeline events provided by the :Friday02:33 AM (-02h40m) – Cassini solid state recorders prepped for support02:45 AM (-02h28m) – Cassini transition to thruster control for relay02:55 AM (-02h18m) – Cassini: final recorder configuration for relay02:57 AM (-02h16m) – Turn on Probe receivers03:09 AM (-02h04m) – Cassini turns toward Titan03:21 AM (-01h52m) – Turn to Titan complete03:24 AM (-01h49m) – Cassini disables X-band downlink04:51 AM (-00h22m) – Probe turns transmitters on (low power mode)05:13 AM (-00h00m) – Probe reaches the discernible atmosphere: 789 miles05:16 AM (+00h03m) – Probe feels maximum deceleration05:17 AM (+00h04m) – Pilot chute: 106-118 miles altitude; Mach 1.5; The parachute deploys when Huygens detects that it has slowed to 895 mph, at about 112 miles above Titan’s surface. The pilot parachute is the probe’s smallest, only 8.5 feet in diameter. Its sole purpose is to pull off the probe’s rear cover, which protected Huygens from the frictional heat of entry. 2.5 seconds after the pilot parachute is deployed, the rear cover is released and the pilot parachute is pulled away. The main parachute, which is 27.2 feet in diameter, unfurls.05:18 AM (+00h05m) – At about 99 miles above the surface, the front shield is released. Forty-two seconds after the pilot parachute is deployed, inlet ports are opened up for the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer and Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser instruments, and booms are extended to expose the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instruments. The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer will capture its first panorama, and it will continue capturing images and spectral data throughout the descent. The Surface Science Package will also be switched on, measuring atmospheric properties.05:32 AM (+00h19m) – Main parachute separates and drogue parachute deploys: The drogue parachute is 9.8 feet in diameter. At this level in the atmosphere, about 78 miles in altitude, the large main parachute would slow Huygens down so much that the batteries would not last for the entire descent to the surface. The drogue parachute will allow it to descend at the right pace to gather the maximum amount of data.05:49 AM (+00h36m) – Surface proximity sensor activated: Until this point, all of Huygens’s actions have been based on clock timers. At a height of 37 miles, it will be able to detect its own altitude using a pair of radar altimeters, which will be able to measure the exact distance to the surface. The probe will constantly monitor its spin rate and altitude and feed this information to the science instruments. All times after this are approximate.05:56 AM (+00h43m) – Possible icing effects to Probe (31 miles)06:57 AM (+01h41m) – Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer begins sampling atmosphere: This is the last of Huygens’s instruments to be activated fully. The descent is expected to take 137 minutes in total, plus or minus 15 minutes. Throughout its descent, the spacecraft will continue to spin at a rate of between 1 and 20 rotations per minute, allowing the camera and other instruments to see the entire panorama around the descending spacecraft.07:19 AM (+02h06m) – Cassini closest approach: 37,282 miles flyby at 12,080 mph, 93 deg phase07:30 AM (+02h17m) – Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer lamp turned on: Close to the surface, Huygens’s camera instrument will turn on a light. The light is particularly important for the ‘Spectral Radiometer’ part of the instrument to determine the composition of Titan’s surface accurately.07:34 AM (+02h21m) – Surface touchdown: This time may vary by plus or minus 15 minutes depending on how Titan’s atmosphere and winds affect Huygens’s parachuting descent. Huygens will hit the surface at a speed of 11.2-13.4 mph. Huygens could land on a hard surface of rock or ice or possibly land on an ethane sea. In either case, Huygens’s Surface Science Package is designed to capture every piece of information about the surface that can be determined in the three remaining minutes that Huygens is designed to survive after landing.09:44 AM (+04h31m) – Cassini stops collecting data; Huygens’s landing site drops below Titan’s horizon as seen by Cassini and the orbiter stops collecting data. Cassini will listen for Huygens’s signal as long as there is the slightest possibility that it can be detected. Once Huygens’s landing site disappears below the horizon, there’s no more chance of signal, and Huygens’s work is finished.09:46 AM (+04h33m) – Cassini probe data partitions write protected09:54 AM (+04h41m) – Cassini turns toward Earth09:57 AM (+04h44m) – Turn to Earth complete10:06 AM (+04h53m) – Critical sequence ends10:07 AM (+04h54m) – Post-Probe tracking begins (Canberra)10:14 AM (+05h01m) – First data sent to Earth: Getting data from Cassini to Earth is now routine, but for the Huygens mission, additional safeguards are put in place to make sure that none of Huygens’s data are lost. Giant radio antennas around the world will listen for Cassini as the orbiter relays repeated copies of Huygens data.10:17 AM (+05h04m) – Probe data replay begins (Canberra: 66,360 bps)12:57 PM (+07h44m) – End playback of first partition01:04 PM (+07h51m) – Ascending ring-plane crossing: 18.4 Saturn radii02:00 PM (+08h47m) – Start tracking at Madrid (142,200 bps)05:07 PM (+11h54m) – End first full playback of all Probe data08:29 PM (+15h16m) – Full data set on Earth (likely three hours earlier)10:35 PM (+17h22m) – Start tracking at GoldstoneSaturday07:07 AM (+01d02h) – Power on of orbiter instruments08:30 AM (+01d03h) – End nominal playback of Probe dataAres 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Scientists elated by Cassini’s Titan observations BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

    • STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: June 9, 2011 NASA’s aging Voyager spacecraft, more than three decades outbound from Earth and approaching the outermost limits of the solar system, may be seeing signs of what scientists believe are huge magnetic bubbles churning at the interface between the sun’s influence and interstellar space. The unexpected bubbles, shaped like sausages more than 100 million miles across, likely affect how high-energy cosmic rays pass into the inner solar system and may shed light on how stars interact with their galactic environments.Old and new views of the heliosheath. Red and blue spirals are the gracefully curving magnetic field lines of orthodox models. New data from Voyager add a magnetic froth (inset) to the mix. Credit: NASA”It’s exciting. We’re learning new things almost every day,” Voyager project scientist Ed Stone said in a telephone interview.The outward flow of charged particles making up the solar wind, along with the sun’s magnetic field, define a gigantic region in space known as the heliosphere. It is shaped somewhat like a teardrop because of the sun’s motion, due to the rotation of the Milky Way, combined with the effects of the sun’s passage through a cloud of interstellar debris produced by ancient supernova. The tail of the teardrop stretches away in the opposite direction of travel.The outward flow of the solar wind and the entwined magnetic field act as a shield of sorts for the inner solar system, affecting the passage of high-energy cosmic rays from deep space.NASA’s twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft were launched in 1977. Voyager 1 is roughly 11 billion miles from Earth while Voyager 2 is about nine billion miles out. Data from the spacecraft are transmitted to Earth with 20-watt transmitters.”So it’s 20 watts coming from 11 billion miles away,” Stone said. “It’s really a tiny amount of power. We have to use either the largest antennas, the 70-meter antennas, or we have to combine the signals from two 34 meter antennas in order to recover the data.”The Voyagers are moving through a region known as the heliosheath and have reached a point where the outward velocity of the solar wind has dropped to near zero. Just in front of the heliosheath, which defines the outermost limit of the sun’s influence, is the heliopause, the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar wind the sun is moving through. Just in front of the heliopause is a so-called bow shock where the interstellar wind crashes into the heliosphere.”This heliospheric boundary is very important in shielding the heliosphere from galactic cosmic rays that come from outside our home,” said Merav Opher, an astronomer at Boston University. “What shields us is the heliopause, this last region that separates us from the rest of the galaxy.”Scientists believed the structure of the magnetic field at the interface between the heliosphere and interstellar space was relatively smooth. But based on data from the two Voyager spacecraft, it appears that huge magnetic bubbles may form in the heliosheath in the sun’s direction of travel.”A basic principle of magnetic fields in space is that they are tied to the ionized gas, because that gas is an excellent conductor of electricity, and where the gas goes, the field is stretched along with it and wherever the field goes, the gas has to go with it, too,” said Eugene Parker, professor emeritus of physics at the University of Chicago. “So they’re always together, stretched out through the solar system in this case.”Field lines extend from the sun’s north and south poles and are carried away by the solar wind. Because of the sun’s rotation, the field lines become “twisted and wrinkled, a bit like a ballerina’s skirt,” Opher said in a statement. “Far, far away from the sun, where the Voyagers are, the folds of the skirt bunch up.”Based on the Voyager data, scientists suspect magnetic field lines rapidly reconnect in the heliopause and form huge, disconnected bubbles that act like a permeable membrane to incoming cosmic rays. At least those coming from the sun’s direction of travel.”There had been recently some suggestions that the reconnections between the magnetic field in the heliosheath might be important,” Stone told CBS News. “We hadn’t really included that in any of the models because it’s something that happens on a very small scale, it’s hard to model.”There are now models that suggest these bubbles will develop and that will change the nature of that region of the layer we’re in, the heliosheath, and that might affect how cosmic rays from outside, can actually get inside the heliosphere. They have to sort of manage to get across all these bubbles.”Stone is hopeful the Voyagers will cross the heliopause and move into interstellar space in the next few years.”We must be getting very close because the outward motion of the (solar) wind in the heliosheath is basically zero, it’s not moving outward any more, which means we’re close,” he said. “But how close? We don’t know. It could happen any day, it could happen in the next several years. My own feeling is that it would be surprising if we don’t cross the heliopause in the next four years or so.”STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Water may be spurting on Mars NASA NEWS RELEASEPosted: December 6, 2006NASA photographs have revealed bright new deposits seen in two gullies on Mars that suggest water carried sediment through them sometime during the past seven years. “These observations give the strongest evidence to date that water still flows occasionally on the surface of Mars,” said Michael Meyer, lead scientist for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, Washington. Liquid water, as opposed to the water ice and water vapor known to exist at Mars, is considered necessary for life. The new findings heighten intrigue about the potential for microbial life on Mars. The Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor provided the new evidence of the deposits in images taken in 2004 and 2005. The images are available .”The shapes of these deposits are what you would expect to see if the material were carried by flowing water,” said Michael Malin of Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego. “They have finger-like branches at the downhill end and easily diverted around small obstacles.” Malin is principal investigator for the camera and lead author of a report about the findings published in the journal Science. Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:MARS IMAGES PRESENTED BY THE SCIENTISTS VIDEO:QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION The atmosphere of Mars is so thin and the temperature so cold that liquid water cannot persist at the surface. It would rapidly evaporate or freeze. Researchers propose that water could remain liquid long enough, after breaking out from an underground source, to carry debris downslope before totally freezing. The two fresh deposits are each several hundred meters or yards long. The light tone of the deposits could be from surface frost continuously replenished by ice within the body of the deposit. Another possibility is a salty crust, which would be a sign of water’s effects in concentrating the salts. If the deposits had resulted from dry dust slipping down the slope, they would likely be dark, based on the dark tones of dust freshly disturbed by rover tracks, dust devils and fresh craters on Mars. Mars Global Surveyor has discovered tens of thousands of gullies on slopes inside craters and other depressions on Mars. Most gullies are at latitudes of 30 degrees or higher. Malin and his team first reported the discovery of the gullies in 2000. To look for changes that might indicate present-day flow of water, his camera team repeatedly imaged hundreds of the sites. One pair of images showed a gully that appeared after mid-2002. That site was on a sand dune, and the gully-cutting process was interpreted as a dry flow of sand. Today’s announcement is the first to reveal newly deposited material apparently carried by fluids after earlier imaging of the same gullies. The two sites are inside craters in the Terra Sirenum and the Centauri Montes regions of southern Mars. “These fresh deposits suggest that at some places and times on present-day Mars, liquid water is emerging from beneath the ground and briefly flowing down the slopes. This possibility raises questions about how the water would stay melted below ground, how widespread it might be, and whether there’s a below-ground wet habitat conducive to life. Future missions may provide the answers,” said Malin. Besides looking for changes in gullies, the orbiter’s camera team assessed the rate at which new impact craters appear. The camera photographed approximately 98 percent of Mars in 1999 and approximately 30 percent of the planet was photographed again in 2006. The newer images show 20 fresh impact craters, ranging in diameter from 7 feet (2 meters) to 486 feet (148 meters) that were not present approximately seven years earlier. These results have important implications for determining the ages of features on the surface of Mars. These results also approximately match predictions and imply that Martian terrain with few craters is truly young. Mars Global Surveyor began orbiting Mars in 1997. The spacecraft is responsible for many important discoveries. NASA has not heard from the spacecraft since early November. Attempts to contact it continue. Its unprecedented longevity has allowed monitoring Mars for over several years past its projected lifetime. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, manages the Mars Global Surveyor mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. For more information about NASA and agency programs, visit: STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Wife of space shuttle commander shot in ArizonaBY WILLIAM HARWOOD

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